As long as your sprites are vectors and not image you can group the different vectors of the shape into named styles which you can then use to change the color of that style only.
Here you can see that the mouth sprite selected has 5 vectors assigned to two styles (lip, teeth).
When you go to change the color of the lip style only those vectors assigned to that style group will be changed.
To assign vectors to a style:
1) Take your character to COMPOSER MODE
2) Open the Sprite Editor and select a sprite
3) Press Ctrl-Alt-F7 and the Style Naming window will appear.
4) Select the vector to assign to a group.
NOTE: When a vector is selected it will blink.
5) Enter a style name and click apply.
When creating a style for a sprite you should use a name that makes sense such as "skin". That way when you select a style group you will know what you are changing.
The same style names can be used on any vector of any sprite so that "skin" would be a common style group for multiple sprites of the character.
See my CTA Tutorials on the YouTube channel CTAStepByStep
Check out EZColors for CTA. The easy way to change Render Styled (RS) colors.